ENERGY: RENEWABLE TRANSITION




Renewable Power

 Theme: Alignment; Circular Economy; Governance; Sustainability; Technology

Since 2009 Our Research Focus

Resilient, Affordable, Sustainable, Clean Energy Resources

Energy Transitions: Geothermal; Solar; Water; Wind;

Current Research Theme: Agro-Energy Integration with Renewable Energy Transition

Deliverable: Regional Clusters (Trade and Productive Capacity)

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http://www.themughals.net/projects-2

Renewable Energy Supply Chain Strategy

Project Focus: Geothermal Energy Supply Chain   

Purpose: Support Communities with Skills Development Programs to align technology with market needs

Products: Components of Geophysical Equipment; Turbines; Electrolysis; Generator Sets; Feed Pumps; Condenser Fan Systems; Air Filters; Air-Cooled Condensers; Heat Exchangers; Preheater; Vaporizer Sets

Advance Manufacturing 

Grid Modernization Initiative Program

Critical Minerals in Clean Energy Transitions

Product Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) 

Energy Storage Program

Renewable Energy Deployment: Geothermal

Geothermal Resource is unique in its Formation, each with its own Chemical Composition; Depth; Enthalpy; Temperature (CCDET); and Integrated Design. 

As of 2020, Geothermal Energy capacity has grown to 15,950 MWe, and 95,098 GWh of electricity produced in 29 countries. These power plants operate with an average capacity factor of 73%, many of them “on-line” over 95% of the time, providing almost continuous base-load power. 

(Source: Oregon Institute of Technology; John W. Lund; January 2022-SSRN Electronic Journal; DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.4059005)

Geothermal Energy is virtually emission-free, renewable energy resource generated from geothermal natural underground reservoirs of hot water; miles beneath the earth surface, heated by Magma. The Steam and Brine produced from these underground reservoirs is used to run turbines to produce electricity.

The slow decay of radioactive particles in the earth's core produces geothermal energy; a process that happens all the times; in all the rocks; across the Earth’s surface.

Priority Project: AGRO-Pharma Regional Clusters

Precision Agriculture Deployment Source: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (ARS)

https://www.nal.usda.gov/legacy/waic/precision-agriculture

AGRO-Pharma Turnkey Solution

Engineering; Procurement; Commissioning; Project Life Support

How Center Pivot Irrigation System (CPIS) Work?

CPIS uses Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Satellite Images; Real-time Data and Software to create Topographic Maps of the target lands. Imagery Data is then used to calculate the CPIS Charge Head of the Pump Station and the Pipe Pressure of the Water Transfer System (WTS) according to the Water Application Rate (WAR) of the Center Pivot or Lateral Move System.

In order to distribute the precise quantity of Water, a system of sprinklers moves on wheeled towers in a circular pattern.

CPIS Component Production

Standards (including): ISO 9001:2008 & ASTM A 123/123m-02

Country Case Study: Saudi Arabia

Energy & Water Source: Geothermal

Case Study

Geothermal Power Plant Construction


Generating Capacity (USA) of Renewable Energy Projects

Source: U.S. DoE NREL

https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy21osti/78291.pdf


Comparison

Levelized Cost of Energy

Conventional vs Renewable Energy

Source: U.S. DoE NREL


https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy21osti/78291.pdf

U.S. Geothermal Power Production by State

https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy21osti/78291.pdf

U.S. Geothermal Projects by State and Phase

https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy21osti/78291.pdf

DOE’s Mentor-Protégé Program (MPP)


The first 250-kilowatt Geothermal Power Plant came online near Pisa, Italy during 1913, geothermal electricity production has grown steadily, tapping a reliable, nearly inexhaustible reserve of hydrothermal systems where fluid, heat, and permeability intersect naturally in the subsurface. (Source: U.S. DoE)

Underlying Technologies

Binary; Combined Cycle; Conventional Steam; Integrated Two-Level Units to harvest abundant underground Natural Resource of Geothermal Energy.

Industrial Market

Geothermal Power Plants Types

·      Dry Steam Plants use steam directly from a geothermal reservoir to turn generator turbines. The first geothermal power plant was built in 1904 in Tuscany, Italy, where natural steam erupted from the earth.

·      Flash Steam Plants take high-pressure hot water from deep inside the earth and convert it to steam to drive generator turbines. When the steam cools, it condenses to water and is injected back into the ground to be used again. Most geothermal power plants are flash steam plants.

·      Binary Cycle Power Plants transfer the heat from geothermal hot water to another liquid. The heat causes the second liquid to turn to steam, which is used to drive a generator turbine.

Commercial & Residential Markets

Geothermal Heat Pumps

Energy Efficient and Cost Effective

According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Geothermal Heat Pumps are the most energy-efficient, environmentally clean, and cost-effective systems for heating and cooling buildings. All types of buildings, including homes, office buildings, schools, and hospitals, can use geothermal heat pumps.

Focused Markets

Depending on its characteristics, Geothermal Energy can be utilized across Industrial; Commercial; and Residential sectors. Geothermal energy offers important benefits, including Grid Stability; Greater Diversity of Affordable Energy Options; Efficient Heating and Cooling; Key Technology and Workforce Pathways from oil and gas to renewable geothermal development; and Lower Carbon Emissions.

Geothermal Energy is Indigenous; Renewable; Affordable; Clean; Virtually Emission-free Constant; and Reliable Energy Resource.  Geothermal Energy is heat derived within the sub-surface of the earth. Water and/or steam carry the geothermal energy to the Earth’s surface. The slow decay of radioactive particles in the earth's core produces geothermal energy; a process that happens all the times; in all the rocks; across the Earth’s surface.

Case Study

Geothermal Power Plant in USA

About: The Steamboat Hills Complex is located in Washoe County, Nevada on both public and privately leased and owned lands. The complex is comprised of six power plants (84 MW) utilizing binary systems and both air & water cooling. (Commissioned 1992, last upgrade 2020).

View the Steamboat Hills Economic Impact Report here (Source: https://www.ormat.com/)

https://www.ormat.com/Warehouse/userUploadFiles/Image/Steamboat%20Hills%20Economic%20Impact%20Report2019.pdf

Geothermal Technology

The first 250-kilowatt Geothermal Power Plant came online near Pisa, Italy during 1913, geothermal electricity production has grown steadily, tapping a reliable, nearly inexhaustible reserve of hydrothermal systems where fluid, heat, and permeability intersect naturally in the subsurface. (Source: U.S. DoE)

While the amount of conventional hydrothermal power worldwide has reached nearly 12 gigawatts, more resources can be accessed through next-generation technologies i.e. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS).  The first ever  Commercial-Scale EGS was commissioned during April 2013, connecting tomorrow’s technology to the U.S. electrical grid today and setting the stage for future growth of geothermal power.

How Does Geothermal Energy Work?

Video Credit: https://www.eavor.com/

Our Research Focus - Since 1996

Geothermal

http://digitallib.oit.edu/digital/collection/geoheat/id/11445

https://sites.google.com/a/themughals.net/www/initiatives-1/project-ucg-ctl-pak/geothermal-energy/GOV%20NREL%20Geothermal%20Map%2011b.jpg

Our Research Focus - Since 2001

Solar


Energy Transition Financial Models


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