Pakistan Clean Coal Program


Coal-to-Liquid & Byproducts

Clean Energy Sources

175 Billion Tons of Coal

Program Strategic Context

Since 1993, Group of Multi-Discipline-Multi-National Experienced Professionals are working on a Energy related Strategic Program called Distributed Energy Technologies and Conversion of Coal to Products.

Mission is to Develop Viable Economic Models using Coal-to-LiquidsDistributed Energy ResourcesUnderground Coal Gasification & Combined Heat and Power (CHP), as underlying technologies. 

Until December 2019, Dr. Aziz Siddiqi Ph.D. (Imperial College London) a renowned Visionary, Scientist, Entrepreneur, Philanthropist President RESOCHEM Corp. USA focused on Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Technology. Till his untimely demise (2019 December) his active areas of research were Environmental Matters Regulatory Compliance, Coal-to-Liquid (CTL) and Operational Efficiency.

Pakistan Coal Reserves

World's Seventh Largest

Geothermal Energy Technology

Source: U.S. Department of Energy

Thar Coal-fired Power Plant

A joint venture between the Govt. of Sindh Pakistan and Engro Energy Limited

Program Current Status

After the untimely demise of Dr. Aziz Ahmad Siddiqi, RESOCHEM Corp. (USA) former Director Special Projects (2007– 2019) RESOCHEM Corp.; current Director MUGHALS-RESOCHEM - MRC LLC and President Pacific Enterprise International Syndicate – PEIS (USA) Mr. Mohammad Afzal Mirza and Prof. Muhammed Sharif Bhatti PhD. President SELECTUM PLC (PAK) are restructuring the Project NOVA-3 in Pakistan i.e. Coal-To-LiquidsUnderground Coal Gasification, as IJV (International Joint Venture), in accordance with the applicable Laws and Regulatory Framework of the respective countries.

Mr. Mohammad Afzal Mirza is the Program Principal Group Director.

Energy Ecosystem

Image Above & Below Source: NETL DoE USA

Coal-fired Power Plant Schematic Design

Coal Underground Gasification Process

Coal-to-Liquid Fuel Technology has been in existence since the 1920s. The process, known as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Synthesis, uses gasification to convert carbon materials to carbon monoxide and a hydrogen-rich synthetic gas. This synthesis gas, or syngas, is fed into an FT reactor that condenses the gas over a catalyst and converts it to wax and liquid products that can be refined into a variety of synthetic fuels.

Schematic Design

Conversion of Coal to Products

US Government Active Projects

Funding and Timeline

US Government 

Active Projects Methodology

Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)

As per National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratory SystemUnderground Coal Gasification (UCG) takes advantage of the same chemical reactions of coal to produce product gases, as those occurring in conventional gasifier reactors. The main difference is that in UCG the underground coal seam itself becomes the reactor, so that the gasification of the coal takes place underground instead of in a manufactured gasification vessel at the surface.

How UCG Works?

Gasification is a technological process that can convert any carbonaceous (carbon-based) raw material such as coal into fuel gas, also known as synthesis gas (syngas). Gasification occurs in a gasifier, generally a high temperature/pressure vessel where oxygen (or air) and steam are directly contacted with the coal or other feed material causing a series of chemical reactions to occur that convert the feed to syngas and ash/slag (mineral residues). Syngas is so called because of its history as an intermediate in the production of synthetic natural gas. Composed primarily of the colorless, odorless, highly flammable gases carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2), syngas has a variety of uses.

UCG Process

In UCG Process, injection wells are drilled into an unmined coal seam, and either air or oxygen is injected into the seam along with water. The coal face is ignited, and the high temperatures (about 1,200°C) from the combustion and limited oxygen causes nearby coal to partially oxidize into hydrogen, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and minimal amounts of methane (CH4) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). These products flow to the surface through one or more production wells located ahead of the combustion zone. As the face is burned and an area depleted, the operation is moved to follow the seam. The graphic below illustrates the general process.

Pakistan Massive Resources


The Syngas can be further converted (or shifted) to nothing but hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2) by adding steam and reacting over a catalyst in a water-gas-shift reactor. When hydrogen is burned, it creates nothing but heat and water, resulting in the ability to create electricity with no carbon dioxide in exhaust gases. Furthermore, hydrogen made from coal or other solid fuels can be used to refine oil, or to make products such as ammonia and fertilizer. More importantly, hydrogen enriched syngas can be used to make gasoline and diesel fuel. 

UCG History

UCG has been identified as a potential process for utilizing Unmineable Coal since the late nineteenth century. The process was first developed, during 1925, by Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch at Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute in Mulheim Germany. Former Soviet Union invested heavily in UCG research. By 1939 the Soviets had successfully begun operating a UCG plant in the Ukraine. Later (and to this day) the Skochinsky Institute of Mining Moscow became a center for UCG expertise. The UCG technology developed by the Institute was implemented in three brown coal and two black coal power stations in the 1960s. One of these facilities, the power station at Angren, Uzbekistan, still operates, producing about a million standard cubic feet of syngas per hour.

During late 1970s and 1980s, the U.S. government instituted several research projects and trials of UCG. China also has a significant history of coal gasification and current installed capacity, and continues to add more gasification capacity at substantial rates, using a wide range of gasifier choices including both Chinese technology and foreign gasifier types.

Current Status

With increasing natural gas demand, interest in UCG has revived around the world. Australia, Pakistan and South Africa are implementing pilot projects.

Source: NETL - DoE - EPA

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MUGHALS Projects

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Mohammad Mirza,
Dec 13, 2020, 9:21 PM